Steve Litt via plug on 21 Sep 2019 11:05:02 -0700

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[PLUG] Sans OS: was Richard M. Stallman resigns

On Sat, 21 Sep 2019 08:21:50 -0400
"K.S. Bhaskar via plug" <> wrote:

> Also, I can say from personal experience that utility programs came
> before operating systems. None of the first five computers I
> programmed (IBM 1620, IBM 1401, IBM 7044, IBM 1800 and PDP-1) had an
> operating system, but the IBM 7044 and PDP-1 had utility programs.

What did you do, toggle in a bootloader and boot to lisp, or something
like that? Did the 7044 and PDP-1 have software that translated calls
from the utility programs to hardware, or did each utility program deal
directly with the hardware?

My Heathkit ET-6800 Microprocessor Trainer[1] supposedly had a "monitor"
instead of an OS, but from my point of view the monitor gave me a 16
button hex keyboard input, and a 4 digit 7 segment LED output, so I had
a shell. The machine behaved just like a single user, single process
Linux machine whose data was all hex numbers between 0 and 255, so to
this day I'm not sure why it was called a "monitor" and not an "OS".


Steve Litt
Author: The Key to Everyday Excellence

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